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She experiences clear and precise visions which she relates directly to her listeners. Her role in the divinatory experience of ancient Greece is a mythical one.

But she also acts as a foil for the other, historical diviners: while she is discredited in that her prophecies are never believed, the general Greek reception of those who gave or interpreted oracles, such as the woman prophet known as the Pythia at Delphi, was as creditable persons whose words and prophecies were heeded, often copied down, and scrutinised as to their intent.

It is Aeschylus in fact who drew what would become the classical portrait of Kassandra. That she is not to be believed is articulated firstly in the Agamemnon when the chorus states its incomprehension of what she is prophesying [line ].

The first words which Kassandra speaks are a cry of woe calling upon Apollo [, repeated at ]; she addresses the god in the context of foretelling her own death [, ].

The chorus declares that even though she is now a slave, the divine is still in her mind [ menei to theon douliai per en freni].

So her prophetic power is here described as a divine element being resident in her mind: there must be a source of her prophetic power, and it is Apollo.

Apollo is moreover the divine seer — mantis — who is destroying her, a mortal mantis []. Just prior to this, she asks herself why she is holding a sceptre and wearing around her neck a manteia stephe — a divinatory garland [].

But there are significant differences which will become clear. As a virgin Kassandra was both the typical and atypical woman prophet of ancient Greece.

There must be a source of her prophetic power, and it is Apollo. But why would he grant her this gift? She is described in Homer as beautiful, and he refers to her as the 17 Euripides Trojan Women Flower Any actual sacred marriage between Apollo and his prophetic priestesses at Delphi had lapsed by the classical period, but could be implied by their living separately from their husbands and in a state of sexual chastity during their time of service.

Apollodoros Library 3. Gantz Her work on the Greek gods was unfavourably reviewed by this author: Dillon But she must remain virgin to fulfil the criteria of prophetess.

This is her tragedy. In addition to her virginity, an abnormal state for a Greek woman, particularly a beautiful one, Kassandra is also a foreigner, as Aeschylus makes a point of reminding his audience,24 from a defeated and destroyed enemy city, and enslaved by Agamemnon.

All of these factors and that her predictions are not believed set her apart from other, normal, generally male, diviners.

Returning briefly to the earlier discussion of Kassandra in Homer, it is his betrothing of Kassandra to Orthryoneus25 that indicates further his lack of interest in or his ignorance of Kassandra as a virginal, inspired prophet.

But in Aeschylus there is a major difference from the later sources in the diachronic setting for the grant of the gift of prophecy.

Prior to him becoming sexually interested in her, she had already in fact been prophesying various disasters to her countrymen [].

Kassandra then consented to marriage to the god, but proved false to her promise. As Kassandra prophesies to the chorus of old men in the Agamemnon about how Klytaimestra is about to slay her husband Agamemnon, she speaks of a floor flowing with blood: for the spectator at the theatre where the play was performed and for the modern reader, who both know how the plot will unfold and to whom the story line is familiar, the predictions are easily transparent.

But not so for the chorus on stage with Kassandra, which only sees the triumphant return of Agamemnon after ten years and his resumption of the kingship of his native Mycenae.

Yet they do not 23 Homer Iliad This is not the place to go into Greek constructs of the otherness of the barbaroi; the concept of Greekness is sufficiently conveyed by Herodotos 8.

Fraenkel 3. The chorus do not understand her but it is not the manner or style of her speaking that confounds them: it is in fact because the god Apollo will not allow any of her listeners to understand what she is saying.

For the ancient Greek prophet of historical times - be they Pythia or mantis - not to be believed was extraordinary. A cursory glance at Greek history makes this apparently clear.

This led to the defeat and almost complete destruction and enslavement of an army numbering in the thousands. But then the Athenians remembered various bad omens which manteis interpreted for them to show in fact that the expedition had after all been a mistake, and that the signs had been misread.

Divination and diviners were not at all discredited in the medium to long range. When the Persians attacked, the Greek forces were under fire and many were being wounded and killed, but Greek manteis would not give the go-ahead for attack until the sphagia were propitious.

Compare too Plutarch Dion Note Popp ; Pritchett ; Shelley For this sphagia incident: Richer ; Pritchett 83; Jameson ; Dillon The most detailed treatment of the sphagia is Dillon , with relevant iconography discussed and shown; cf.

Stengel —80; Pritchett iconography neglected ; Jameson misunderstands purpose of: see Dillon Thucydides 5. On one notable occasion, the thousands of Greek soldiers in the force and their commanders went without any food for several days because the manteis pronounced the sacrificial omens unfavourable for launching an expedition by which they would procure food and wine.

If the Spartans were engaged in military activity and an omen occurred which the manteis pronounced was unfavourable, the army would head for home, forgoing considerable military advantage in doing so.

The mantis is not derided here. The oracles of the Pythia at Delphi were sometimes difficult to understand, as the chorus of the Agamemnon note [], but they were generally at worst misinterpreted rather than ignored.

Even Thucydides who at 5. Omens for military action: yes: 4. Setting out on a march: 3. See Szymanski ; Popp ; Pritchett ; Dillon And so it came to pass: Croesus was defeated by the Persians and his empire conquered by them.

When he remonstrated with Delphi about this, the priestess replied that the responsibility for the interpretation of the oracle was with him: Herodotos 1.

Naturally, she is anxious to be believed and accorded recognition as a prophetic power of great authority.

But she is also described as manic of having mania , and is compared to a wild beast just captured. That is, as worshippers of Dionysos they are de-facto chaste wives and unmarried women, not interested in sexuality or sex, but only in worshipping their god.

Other ancient sources are collected by Henrichs , of which a third-century AD inscription is particularly useful Henrichs ; see also Kraemer See Dillon n.

The debate on the actual date of the work and the identity of the author is not relevant here. This is confirmed by the iconography, for on Athenian vases of the classical period the maenads are depicted in a manner which underscores their liminal status and rejection of husbands and hearths by having untied their hair so that it flows wildly, and by going barefoot.

Dancing, she sings a marriage hymn, such that the chorus leader calls upon her mother Hekabe to stop her frenzied bakcheuousan daughter; Hekabe takes the marriage torches from Kassandra, saying that she is manic and darting about.

It is not any riddling nature of the prophecies which makes them difficult to understand. She is frenzied and inspired by Apollo, and in some sense is also under a Bacchic influence sent by Apollo, but she is clear, articulate and precise about what she has to say.

For iconography, see also Schöne ; Moraw ; some illustrations: Dillon , , figs 5. Aeschylus Agamemnon mantipolei. In Lykophron [born c.

The problem is that the listener has no choice as to whether or not to accept the veracity of the prophecies: the god Apollo ensures that the listener does not give them credence.

This frenzied behaviour must relate to her style of prophecy. A combination of singing and Apolline inspired frenzy which can be described by the sources in Bacchic terms points to the style of her prophecy.

Here she is unlike the staid Pythian priestess sitting placidly on her tripod while delivering her prophecies in either prose or verse.

This is presumably one of the reasons why she was not comprehended or believed: the Bacchic, frenzied nature of her delivery — while the words themselves were totally comprehensible — did not inspire the confidence of her listeners, but in fact frightened them and predisposed them to ignore her warnings.

In contrast, the warnings and advice of the calm and sedate Pythia priestess at Delphi generally inspired universal confidence. Something more needs to be said about the nature of the inspired prophecy of the Pythia.

Long ago the Roman views63 of the Pythia as a possessed crazed priestess were abandoned by modern scholars. In one case, the accusation of bribery was proved, but the office of the Pythia itself was not discredited, only the individual office-holder: the bribed Pythia called Periallos was exiled for life.

Accusations were made about bribing the Pythia on two other, different occasions, but nothing came of these. Maurizio also goes to great lengths to show that the Pythia actually spoke the oracles, which is not in dispute, and misreads the arguments scholars have presented about the Pythia.

Numerous general works on the Delphic oracle which do not make important scholarly contributions include: Amandry ; Parke ; Lloyd-Jones ; Morgan , ; Wood ; Bowden Two other incidents: 1 Herodotos 5.

For these, see Hodkinson ; Parker ; Dillon Clearly she knew when she was bribed to say certain things; more importantly, as she spoke rationally and calmly, it is difficult how she could not understand the words she was speaking at the time, especially since Bowden can adduce no evidence to support his claim.

The Pythia was said to be inspired by the god Apollo, and delivered her response in a rational, coherent manner which she understood. The historical enquiries which survive indicate that her responses did not require hallucinogenic substances or gases emanating from cracks in the rock , and she was not in a state of Bacchic possession.

Perhaps, too, at each successive refusal to believe she became more disposed to mania, and so less credible. Moreover, the chorus in the Agamemnon recoils from the very graphic scenes of destruction and murder which she sings of so clearly, just as in Lykophron she spares the listener not one single bloody, gory detail of the impending destruction of Troy.

She is a completely negative prophet, predicting no good whatsoever for her original community, Troy, or for the one she enters with Agamemnon, Mycenae.

Doom, death and destruction follow closely at her heels: not brought about by her of course, but unpalatably predicted by her.

The Pythia predicted the destruction of Athens in BC, with the Persian army just to the north, with its leader Xerxes having through his messengers having promised just such an outcome.

The passage is correctly interpreted by Dillon Herodotos 7. Compton This contrasts with a fundamental feature of Greek prophecy: divination was staid, whether it involved direct communication with the gods or otherwise.

Kassandra, as a prophet in Aeschylus or Euripides, is given no credence by her listeners. Rather, in Greek history itself, as opposed to myth, it is the staid women diviners at the Delphic oracle who are believed, along with the male seers who divined in other ways.

Contrary to the imagination of the Roman poets and hence of the western tradition, the women who were the Delphic priestesses did not froth at the mouth, hallucinate, or otherwise: the Greek sources of the classical period stress the calmness and sedateness of the Pythian priestess, who was fully incorporated into the civic, religious and political life of the city-state.

They were often ritual prescriptions: something had happened in the community and it wanted to know how to change the situation.

For example, if there was a plague, the ritual remedy prescription would be to placate such and such a god with a sacrifice of a particular, prescribed variety.

Often the answer might be a simple affirmative to some suggested course of action. There was, in fact, very little actual prediction of the future.

Her prophecies are not just that Agamemnon will be killed but she specifically describes to the chorus what is happening to Agamemnon inside the palace while she and the chorus are outside [ and following].

She also sees into the past and describes the terrible scenes which have occurred in that place over the generations, with babies bewailing their butchering [, ]; she sees the murders about to take place and the horrible ones of the past in this same palace and of the clan of the Atreidai to which Agamemnon belongs.

More importantly, the fact that the Trojans ignore her prophecies — which turn out to be true — is a warning to heed mantic advise which is divinely inspired.

The exception proves the rule: divination was widely used and respected in Greek culture. The Greeks, in fact, of all socio- economic classes, gender, and age, gave credence to the divinatory character of omens and prodigies, varying only in their degree of just what could be ominous and have divinatory significance.

So why does Kassandra, with divinely inspired, completely accurate prophetic powers as a gift from Apollo, meet with such an incredulous response?

The fifth-century BC Vulci cup by the Kodros painter Berlin Museum is the most widely reproduced of illustrations for the Delphic oracle and shows a calm, sedate Pythia sitting on a tripod, with a consultant standing in front of her.

Credence in divination was universal. For the gods grant a sign to him whom they consider is in their grace. They did not have a flash of inspiration only once or irregularly in their career.

But in her case Apollo had arranged that none of her predictions were to be believed. The regular activity of the male prophet can perhaps be juxtaposed to the prophetic announcements of Kassandra.

She did not provide regular interpretations. Rather her pronouncements were irregular and concerned only moments of crisis.

They had no place in the formal divinatory apparatus of the community. She offers no remedy for the events which she describes.

She provides no hope or assistance to counter the crisis and tragedy of the destruction of Troy. Her prophecies threaten the destruction of the social fabric of Troy by urging the repudiation of Paris and the return of Helen to Greece.

Even her urging the Trojans not to bring the wooden horse into the city has the potential to divide Troy into two opposing camps at the very moment when victory seems secure.

By ignoring her prophecies the community of Troy remains united and stable, until its final destruction. Her prophecies occur outside of the normal divinatory framework of the community: instead of waiting for some omen to be interpreted, which was how Greek divination worked, Kassandra spontaneously provides prophecies at a time when the community is not looking or searching for them.

She does not react to omens and divinatory phenomena but speaks outside of the socio-religious context and the ordered gendered milieu of the classical Greek city.

This woman diviner goes outside the normal framework and disturbs the community with unlooked for predictions which the gods have not prepared the way for through sending signs which a seer could interpret and about which he could offer advice.

Seers did encounter opposition to their interpretations of omens, but it is the inconvenience of their interpretations which arouses dislike for the prophets themselves.

The classic example is Agamemnon, who in the Iliad Book 2 accuses the main Greek prophet — Kalchas — of being nothing but a bearer of bad news.

He did so also when Kalchas interpreted the prodigy of the eagle and the hare as the Greek fleet was preparing to sail for Troy.

This must be another sub-theme in the Kassandra myths: Apollo is the source of prophecy, and to ignore this prophetic power and what it has to say is unwise.

The myth of Kassandra as a prophet who operates as a free agent but whose prophecies are never believed reveals and stresses that the prophetic woman, uncontrolled and prophesying outside of any confines set by male society, is not acceptable.

The Pythian priestess was an important prophet but her activities were organised in an anally retentive way by men, with the prophecies limited to once a month, with the questions considered beforehand, and with male religious staff present when the women Pythian priestesses prophesied.

The Pythia was no Kassandra: she did not sit on her tripod making prophecies as the inspiration came to her on any day of the week. Kassandra was thus an exception to the norm.

She had divinatory powers: that is, mantic ability. Possessed by Apollo in a bacchic fashion, she was also maenadic.

But as such she was also manic, with a mania which informed her prophecy. Mantic, maenadic, manic, her style of inspired spontaneous prophecy, provoked by the onset of a crisis, did not exist in historical Greece.

The rhythms of divination were regular and the means of divination routine and even mundane: her prophetic methods were the stuff only of legend.

If there was a crisis, the entrails were consulted without recourse to diviners who were manic, frenzied or possessed. The Pythia priestess, said to be in communication with Apollo, sat sedately on her tripod and answered questions which had been pre-circulated and delivered the answer in a staid voice, with consultations occurring only once a month.

The sole woman practitioner of inspired, ecstatic prophecy belonged to myth: Kassandra, doomed not to be believed.

The women who served as Pythian priestesses acted as oracle pronouncers and were constrained in a male constructed environment; all legacy of a period in the historical past which women may have been ecstatic prophets was relegated to an archetypal example.

This was Kassandra, the mere stuff of tragedies, denied reality in a world where men divined by groping at entrails, watching birds, and pondering on the meaning of eclipses and lightning — but without ecstasy or possession.

References Ancient texts Athenaeus The Deipnosophists, trans. Gulick, vols. Heinemann, London. Aeschylus Aeschylus. Agamemnon, Libation Bearers, Eumenides, Fragments, trans.

Smyth, vol. Frazer, vols. Aristophanes Aristophanes. Birds, Lysistrata, Women at the Thesmophoria, trans.

Aristotle Constitution of the Athenians, trans. Diodoros , Diodorus Siculus. The Library of History, trans. Geer, vols. Euripides Euripides.

Children of Heracles, Hippolytus, Andromache, Hecuba, trans. Kovacs, vol. Kovaks, vol. Herodotus Herodotus. The Histories, trans.

Penguin, Harmondsworth. Hippocrates Hippocrates, trans. Smith, vol. Homer The Iliad, trans. Murray, 2 vols.

Evelyn- White. Lucan Pharsalia, trans. Lykophron Alexandra. Callimachus: Hymns and Epigrams, Lycophron, Aratus, trans.

Mair and G. Pausanias Pausanias, trans. Jones, H. Ormerod, and R. Wycherley, 5 vols. Pindar Pindar. Olympian Odes.

Pythian Odes, trans. Race, vol. Plato Plato. Euthyphro, Apology, Crito, Phaedo, Phaedrus, trans.

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